collection of worldwide statistics and facts - Wich dogs bite?
I got most of these files from Paul Dunkel Sathy.org he made it possible to make this page....
Some info also came from Kenneth M. Phillips at www.dogbitelaw.com
THX ALOT !!
First i would like to point out , as u will see here that most bites were done to children in the age of 5-10years. And most the time when a child walks up to a dog (loose or chained) , they run right at the dog , smiles & and shouts often tryes to pet them fast and from above of the dog...
This is some times , or most of the time the actual reason why the dog bites..!! The smiling and stright approch is seen upon as threat display and a chained dog feels cornered and bites..!! If u study how dogs say hello to other dogs , its done the opposite way !!
SO, teach ur children to never walk up to a chained dog...ask the owner first !! never smile , or shout , give the dog the hand to smell it before u pet him.....
My best.......Nicke !!
First some info on how good / stabile temperament the pitbull have.
Thanks to the Connecticut Humane Society, who published the following wonderful stats in their Winter, 1997 issue of Pet Life. They state that according to the American Canine Temperament Testing Association, 95 percent of the American Pit Bull Terriers that took its temperament test passed, compared to a 77 percent passing rate for all breeds on average. Furthermore, APBT’s had a passing rate that was the fourth highest of all 122 breeds tested! I think we all, in our hearts, know this, but it sure is good to see it in print somewhere!! If only this information could be seen by more people - I guess this is a start!
These stats are part of a larger article called "Pinky’s Triumph" which praises the pit bull terrier as the wonderful breed it is. The article realistically points out the importance of proper breeding, socialization and training, the result being that `pits’ can thus make excellent pets. It also makes note that they are strong-willed dogs, and that positive socialization from puppyhood, firm guidance with lots of reward and no physical punishment will help a `pit’ be the very best it can be. Pinky was one of this humane society’s APBT’s that was lucky enough to find a wonderful home.
Thanks goes to "Jacky" from FOT-INC , for this statistics.
From Dekalb County Georgia
An Ordinance for Dogs dated 1987 done by a study group appointed by the county
This five year study clearly makes note of the fact that statistics could not be used to document the dangerousness of any one breed, or the comparison of one breed to another.
That data show that it is impossible to know how many dogs of a given breed are in the general canine population at any given time. * As the popularity of a breed increases so are the chances for a similar increase in the number of dog bites for that breed. Therefore, with out specific data on the numbers of pure bred and mixed dogs in a community, it is impossible to know how "dangerous" any specific breed of dogs might be, therefore, most analysts of these problems agree that when legislation is focused on the dog it usually fails because most communities find themselves with tough laws that are vague, unenforceable, confucing and costly to administer. More significantly, by focusing attention on tough definitions and dogs which are defined as "vicious", the major point, in fact, is missed.....that most biting dogs are usually not under supervision or are running loose.
Article about children being bitten by dogs November 95 iissue of Pediatrics, a journal put out by the American Academy of Pediatrics
"Both dog owners and adults who care for children must be educated to the range of situations and behaviors that elicit agressive responses from dogs. Dog behavior appears complex and erratic to the untrained observer.... Dominance aggression usually occurs in relation to persons well known to the dog and most often in familiar surroundings. Aggression near the dog's home may also contain an important component of territoriality. In contrast, strays are usually wary of humans and rarely aggressive. However, many people continue to believe the contrary and perceive strays are more likely to be aggressive. Perhaps because of this misconception, the diligence of supervising adults may wane in the presence of a familiar dog, leaving their child at risk for injury. Children may also have less fear of dogs that they have seen on previous occasions and may place themselves at greater risk."
Dog bites. A neglected problem in accident prevention.Am J Dis Child 1982 Mar;136(3):202-4
ABSTRACT: Dog bites are a common but neglected pediatric problem. To clarify the epidemiology of dog bites and to learn if parents would welcome counseling aimed at preventing bites, 455 families (960 children) in a Denver pediatric practice were surveyed. One hundred ninety-four children (20.2%) had been bitten at least once, with the majority of bites occurring before the child was aged 5 years. Forty-three percent of the bites prompted a visit to a physician and 16.5% received sutures. German shepherds were responsible for 17% of the incidents, more than expected relative to their popularity as pets.
The dogs usually were owned by a
neighbor (40.2%) or the victim's family (31%). Approximately half
of the bites were believed to be unprovoked. Seventy-seven percent
of the parents believed that dog bite prevention warranted
discussion with their physician. Dog bites are an important
pediatric problem, and parents should be counseled accordingly
during well-child visits.
Severe attacks by dogs: characteristics of the dogs, the victims, and the attack settings.Public Health Rep 1985 Jan-Feb;100(1):55-61
ABSTRACT: Sixteen incidents involving dog bites fitting the description "severe" were identified among 5,711 dog bite incidents reported to health departments in five South Carolina counties (population 750,912 in 1980) between July 1, 1979, and June 30, 1982. A "severe" attack was defined as one in which the dog "repeatedly bit or vigorously shook its victim, and the victim or the person intervening had extreme difficulty terminating the attack." Information from health department records was clarified by interviews with animal control officers, health and police officials, and persons with firsthand knowledge of the events. Investigation disclosed that the dogs involved in the 16 severe attacks were reproductively intact males.
The median age of the dogs was 3 years. A majority of the attacks were by American Staffordshire terriers, St. Bernards, and cocker spaniels. Ten of the dogs had been aggressive toward people or other dogs before the incident that was investigated. Ten of the 16 victims of severe attacks were 10 years of age or younger; the median age of all 16 victims was 8 years. Twelve of the victims either were members of the family that owned the attacking dog or had had contact with the dog before the attack. Eleven of the victims were bitten on the head, neck, or shoulders. In 88 percent of the cases, the attacks took place in the owner's yard or home, or in the adjoining yard. In 10 of the 16 incidents, members of the victims' families witnessed the attacks. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Beck AM, Jones BA
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616.
Epidemiologic surveys of dog and cat bites in the Lyon area, France.Eur J Epidemiol 1992 Jul;8(4):619-24
ABSTRACT: The urban pet population has increased considerably in France during the last twenty years. Two main questions need to be answered regarding rabies and other bite transmitted zoonoses: What is the actual incidence rate of dog and cat bites in an urban area; and how sensitive is the animal bite reporting system? To answer these questions, four surveys were conducted in the Lyon area, France, in 1989: 1) an analysis of the consultation reports to the Pasteur Institute and of the bite reports sent by veterinarians to the local veterinary services for 1987 and 1988; 2) a survey of 10 veterinary clinics located in the Lyon area and an analysis of their bite reports for the period May 1987-April 1989; 3) a questionnaire survey to 175 clients of these veterinary clinics; 4) a street survey of a random sample of the Lyon adult population (310 questionnaires). Bite incidence rates ranged from 10/100,000 persons/year for rabies post-exposure treatments to 37.5/100,000 persons/year for reported bites. However, less than half of the bite reports from the ten veterinary clinics were submitted to the veterinary services. The surveys conducted among pet owners and the general population indicated that, overall, bites were common events (3.4%) and occurred more often in pet owners (8.6%). In 74% of the cases, victims belonged to the pet owner's family and one fourth of the accidents occurred when playing with the pet. However, 12% of the accidents resulted from apparently unprovoked aggressions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
[Child aggression by dogs: a preliminary study of risk factors] Ann Pediatr (Paris) 1990 Mar;37(3):162-6
ABSTRACT: Dog bites in children, although a genuine problem, have as yet been little studied in France from the viewpoint of epidemiology. A detailed study of 184 bites leading to management in a rabies control centre provided preliminary data on individual characteristics and behaviors of the dogs and children, as well as on features of the environment (place and time) that seem to be specifically associated with dog attacks on children. Increased insight into these risk factors should prove useful for the preventive information of children, parents, and dog owners.
Jarrett P Laboratoire de Psychophysiologie, UFR des Sciences et des Techniques, BESANCON.
Accident and Emergency Department,
St James's University Hospital, Leeds, U.K.
Which dogs bite? Arch Emerg Med 1991 Mar;8(1):33-5
ABSTRACT: Young children (less than
11 years old) are a particular risk group for dog bites. Dog bites
commonly occur from the family pet. Alsatian or alsatian mixes are
the biggest group in the study causing dog bites. Alsations are a
popular breed. By comparison Retrievers (Labrador and Golden),
also a popular breed, caused few bites.
Department of Public Health & Epidemiology, Odstock Hospital, Salisbury, Wiltshire.
A survey of dog bites in Salisbury. R Soc Health 1991 Dec;111(6):224-5
ABSTRACT: A recent survey of patients attending an Accident and Emergency (A&E) department serving several economically depressed Thanet coastal towns found that around 3 per 1000 of the resident population attended each year for the treatment of dog bite injuries (Thomas and Banks, 1990). We report a study of dog bite injuries treated in the A&E department serving Salisbury, a small prosperous Cathedral city, and surrounding villages. In comparison with Thanet, age specific incidence rates for dog bites show a similar pattern but only about half the overall incidence.
Some reasons for these findings are suggested and extrapolations for national treatment figures are made.
Division of General Pediatrics (Emergency Medicine), Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Dog bites in urban children [see comments]
ABSTRACT: As a result of a perceived increase in pit bull injuries, all children who presented to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia during 1989 for evaluation of dog bite injuries were prospectively studied. Epidemiologic information was collected from parents, either at the time of visit or by phone on the following day. A total of 168 children were enrolled; the mean age was 8 years. Males outnumbered females 1.5:1. Most (61%) injuries occurred in or around the home and involved dogs known to the patient (77%). Types of injuries included abrasions (33%), punctures (29%), and lacerations (38%). Thirteen bites had associated complications; nine developed infection. Twelve (7%) children required admission to the hospital. More than 12 different purebreeds or cross-breeds were identified as perpetrators, including German shepherds (n = 35), pit bulls (n = 33), rottweilers (n = 9), and Dobermans (n = 7). Most (54%) animals were contained (ie, leashed, fenced, in-house) at the time of injury. Fewer (46%) were provoked prior to biting. Significantly more pit bull injuries (94% vs 43%, P less than .001) were the consequence of unprovoked attacks and involved freely roaming animals (67% vs 41%, P less than .01). Children aged 5 or younger were more likely to provoke animals prior to injury than were older children (69% vs 36%, P less than .001). It is recommended that families with young children be the target of pet safety education and that measures be sought that would lead to early identification of a potentially dangerous dog and restrict ownership.
Comment in: Pediatrics 1992 Feb;89(2):356-7 Division of General Pediatrics (Emergency Medicine), Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Dog bites in urban children [see comments]
Severe dog-bite injuries, introducing the concept of pack attack: a literature review and seven case reports. Injury 1995 Jan;26(1):37-41
ABSTRACT: Attacks on humans by dogs acting as a pack, though uncommon, result in severe, sometimes fatal, injuries. We report seven cases of attacks by packs of dogs (five on children and two on elderly women) including one fatal case. The dangers of dogs acting as a pack are highlighted, particularly when confronted with an unaccompanied child or elderly female.Department of Plastic Surgery, Cork Regional Hospital, Wilton, Ireland.
The pattern of injuries and principles of treatment are discussed.
Greenhalgh C, Cockington RA, Raftos J
Servicio de Cirugia Pediatrica, Hospital Infantil Miguel Servet, Zaragoza.
Dog bites in children. Epidemiologic and clinical study of 144 cases An Esp Pediatr 1992 Oct;37(4):287-90
ABSTRACT: We have done a prospective study of 144 cases of dog bites in children between 1 and 13 years of age that were attended at the Emergency Department of the "Miguel Servet" Children's Hospital of Zaragoza over a period of 30 months. The average child is an 8 year old boy who is bitten at 4 p.m. in the lower limbs by a dog belonging to either the family, a neighbor, or to some friends. The dog of unknown breed and the German shepherd are those most frequently involved (39.5% and 22.2%, respectively). There is a low incidence of infection (4.8%). The attacks were provoked by petting in 52.7%; therefore, we recommend not to get close to the animals even if they are known. In our area, 83.3% of the children are correctly vaccinated. Finally, we compare our results with other studies and we suggest that it is of great interest to establish measures in order to reduce the incidence of dog bites.
Shewell PC, Nancarrow JD
West Midlands Regional Plastic and Jaw Surgery Unit, Wordsley Hospital, Stourbridge.
Dogs that bite BMJ 1991 Dec 14;303(6816):1512-3 [see comments]
OBJECTIVE: To study the circumstances of dog bites and identify risk factors. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire survey and case note review of victims of dog bites referred between 1982 and 1989. SETTING: One referral based regional plastic surgery unit PATIENTS: 146 consecutive patients referred for primary treatment of dog bites, for whom current addresses were available for 133, 107 (81%) of whom returned the questionnaire. RESULTS: The male to female ratio was 74:72; 79 (54%) patients were aged below 15 years. The commonest dogs producing bites were Staffordshire bull terriers (15 cases), Jack Russell terriers (13), medium sized mongrels (10), and Alsatians (nine). 82 of 96 (85%) dogs were male. 29 of 47 (62%) adults were bitten at home and 45 of 60 (75%) children at a friend's, neighbour's, or relative's house. 91 of 107 (85%) bites occurred in the dog's home. Bites occurred during playing with 13 (12%), petting 14 (13%), or waking 16 (15%) dogs. 45 (42%) bites were judged as unprovoked. 32 bites were identified as severe and 11 attacks as sustained. CONCLUSIONS: Most victims are bitten by male dogs which they either own or have had frequent contact with, and the bite occurs in the dog's home.
Avner JR, Baker MD
Comment in: BMJ 1992 Jan
11;304(6819):116 Comment in: BMJ 1992 Jan 11;304(6819):116-7
Comment in: BMJ 1992 Jan 11;304(6819):117
Injury Prevention Research Unit, University of Otago Medical School, Dunedin.
The incidence of dog bites in New Zealand. N Z Med J 1992 Feb 12;105(927):33-5
ABSTRACT: The subject of dog bites has received considerable media attention in recent times. The incidence of fatal dog bites and those resulting in inpatient treatment was determined for New Zealand for the period 1979-88. The incidence of dog bite injuries resulting in treatment at Dunedin Hospital's accident and emergency department was also determined. No fatal events were identified.
There has been a steady increase in the number of incidents requiring inpatient treatment from 54 in 1979 to 158 in 1988 resulting in an incidence rate of 4.8 per 100,000 population in 1988. Overall, males, children, and Maori, had higher rates than female, adults, and nonMaori respectively.Although injuries to the face were the most common, those to the lower limb tended to result in longer stays in hospital for treatment. A total of 182 dog bites were treated at Dunedin Hospital's accident and emergency department for the year ending 31 March 1990, giving an overall incidence rate of 175 per 100,000 population. It is estimated that for the entire country 5710 similar events are treated per annum.
Chomel BB, Trotignon J
An epidemiological survey of dog bites presenting to the emergency department of a children's hospital. J Paediatr Child Health 1991 Jun;27(3):171-4
ABSTRACT: German shepherds are the most popular registered breed of dog in South Australia, but are also the most hazardous to children, biting more often and more severely. A study of the victims of dog bites presenting to the Emergency Department of the Adelaide Children's Hospital over an 18 month period revealed that, although many breeds were involved, only German shepherds were implicated more frequently than their prevalence in the community. Attacks occurred most often in a domestic setting involving a friendly dog that was known to the victim. Boys were more often bitten than girls and children aged 1-6 years most commonly involved. Injuries to the face and scalp were frequent and the usual ones to require admission for suture under general anaesthetic. Some scarring was a common sequel and resulting fear of dogs remained with some children.School of Medicine, Sydney University, New South Wales, Australia.
Most attacks were reported to be unprovoked and a previous biting history on the part of the dog was uncommon. Parents who are contemplating obtaining a dog for a family pet should be made aware of these facts and advised regarding the biting hazards and possible prevention. The German shepherd situation especially should be brought to their attention.
Gracia Romero J, Labarta Aizpun JI,
Monreal Galvez MJ, Elias Pollina J
A review of animal bites in Delaware--1989 to 1990.Del Med J 1990 Dec;62(12):1425-33
ABSTRACT: Rabies, a disease associated with aggression in animals, has been endemic in terrestrial wildlife in New Castle County, Delaware, since November 1987. There have been four documented deaths in humans in Delaware since 1919, although the last case originated in Maryland and was hospitalized in Delaware in 1975. Because of the potential association of pet animals with wild animals and the subsequent contact with humans, emphasis is placed on preventive medicine (vaccinations) and prevention of animal bites. People are bitten more often by dogs than any other domestic animal, causing injury, pain and sometimes death.
Feder HM Jr, Shanley JD, Barbera JA
Division of Public Health, Delaware Health and Social Services,
Review of 59 patients hospitalized with animal bites.Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987 Jan;6(1):24-8
ABSTRACT: We reviewed the charts of 59 pediatric and adult patients hospitalized because of animal bites (46 dog bites, 10 cat bites, 3 monkey bites). The bites of 40 of the 59 patients were infected at the time of admission. Gram-stained specimens correctly predicted the infecting bacteria in only 5 of 20 cases. Eighty-three percent of the bacterial isolates were penicillin-susceptible. Before admission 14 patients had received outpatient antibiotic prophylaxis and the infections in 11 of these 14 patients were caused by bacteria susceptible to the prophylactic antibiotic.
Complications were more common if antimicrobial therapy had not been altered according to susceptibility testing results. Of the 59 patients 19 were admitted immediately after being bitten because of severe uninfected bites. Of these 19 patients 18 received prophylactic antibiotics and none developed a serious complication.
Thomas PR, Buntine JA
Man's best friend?: a review of the Austin Hospital's experience with dog bites Med J Aust 1987 Dec 7-21;147(11-12):536-40
ABSTRACT: A retrospective study of outpatient casualty-department attendances and inpatient hospital admissions for dog-bite wounds was undertaken. Alsatians were the offending dog in 47% of 34 recorded cases. The majority of patients were young; 73% of patients were less than 30 years of age. The upper limb was bitten most frequently (53% of bites). Eleven per cent of dog-bite wounds that were treated in casualty became infected. Upper limb and puncture wounds more often became infected. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment was associated with a 6% infection rate compared with an 18% infection rate in those who were not treated (not statistically significant; P greater than 0.1). Patients of over the age of 45 years had a higher complication rate. All these findings are consistent with other published series. The infection rate was minimal when patients were admitted to hospital and their wounds debrided and closed by a consultant plastic surgeon. A plan for the management of dog-bite wounds is outlined.
Daniels TJ Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Vic.
The upper limb was bitten most frequently (53% of bites)
A study of dog bites on the Navajo reservation. Public Health Rep 1986 Jan-Feb;101(1):50-9
ABSTRACT: Reservation-wide dog-bite statistics indicate a bite rate on the Navajo Reservation that is comparable to that of a large city. Detailed analysis of 772 bite reports was made to determine the characteristics of biters and their victims.
This included an assessment of the behavioral antecedents leading up to the bite incident; 98.4 percent of all cases for which a possible cause could be ascertained were provoked in some way. Both dog control and public education measures need to be taken to reduce the frequency of dog bites.
Pollak S, Mortinger H
Sacks JJ, Sattin RW, Bonzo SE Fatal dog bite injuries Beitr Gerichtl Med 1989;47():487-95
ABSTRACT: In the absence of her
parents, a girl of 4 months was killed by a 2-year old male
Rottweiler dog belonging to the same family. The dog's front teeth
left marks of individual, circular or scratch-like abrasions as
well as slit-like severances of the skin, arranged in curved
lines. The pattern of the skin-lesions largely correspond to the
anatomy of the dog's set of teeth. No tissue defects (effects of
devour) could be detected. Multiple traumatization of the trunk
had led to serial rib fractures and ruptures of several organs.
Division of Field Epidemiology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
Which dogs bite? A case-control study of risk factors. Pediatrics 1994 Jun;93(6 Pt 1):913-7
OBJECTIVE. Dog bites cause an estimated 585,000 injuries resulting in the need for medical attention yearly and children are the most frequent victims. This study sought to determine dog-specific factors independently associated with a dog biting a nonhousehold member.
METHODS. A matched case-control design comprising 178 pairs of dogs was used. Cases were selected from dogs reported to Denver Animal Control in 1991 for a first-bite episode of a nonhousehold member in which the victim received medical treatment. Controls were neighborhood-matched dogs with no history of biting a nonhousehold member, selected by modified random-digit dialing based on the first five digits of the case dog owner's phone number. Case and control dog owners were interviewed by telephone.
RESULTS. Children aged 12 years and younger were the victims in 51% of cases. Compared with controls, biting dogs were more likely to be German Shepherd (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 16.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8 to 71.4) or Chow Chow (ORa = 4.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 13.7) predominant breeds, male (ORa = 6.2, 95% CI 2.5 to 15.1), unneutered (ORa = 2.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 6.3), residing in a house with > or = 1 children (ORa = 3.5, 95% CI 1.6 to 7.5), and chained while in the yard (ORa = 2.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 8.1).
CONCLUSIONS. Pediatricians should advise parents that failure to neuter a dog and selection of male dogs and certain breeds such as German Shepherd and Chow Chow may increase the risk of their dog biting a nonhousehold member, who often may be a child. The potential preventability of this frequent public health problem deserves further attention.
Kneafsey B, Condon KC
Unreported dog bites in children.Public Health Rep 1985 May-Jun;100(3):315-21
ABSTRACT: In 1981, more than 3,200 Pennsylvania children, ages 4 to 18 years, were surveyed about their dog bite histories and attitudes toward animals. Dog bites were much more common than previously reported: 45 percent of children had been bitten during their lifetimes, and 15.5 percent had been bitten in 1980, more than 36 times the rate reported to health authorities.
In 1980, the highest bite rate occurred among children 7-12 years old (20 percent). Children were bitten more frequently by the dogs owned by their neighbors, followed by their own dogs, than by strays or by dogs whose owners were not known. Boys were bitten twice as frequently as girls by neighbors' dogs and strays; the bite rates from family dogs were identical in boys and girls.
Despite the high bite rates, being bitten was not significantly associated, in most groups of children studied, with a dislike of dogs. These positive attitudes toward dogs may lead to inadequate precautions against bites and to biases in the reporting of bites to health authorities.
Lauer EA, White WC, Lauer BA
Few words about the stats
When reading these statistics, it's good to keep in mind that the reactions of the public and the media are greatly out of proportion to the actual riscs.
Regardless to the breed there are much worse threats to the people (for example the domestic cats, see page 9).
Here follows the top 18 accidental killers according to the N.S.C, homicides and disease related deaths are NOT included:
In a report from Dekalb County Georgia, the conclusion was reached that staistics could no be used to document the dangerousness of any one breed, or the comparison of one breed to another. The 5-year study of fatal attacks from 1975-1980 lists the GSD first and "mixed breeds" second with the American Pit Bull terrier listed 6th.
A 6-year study in Palm Beach County of "most severe dog bite by breed" shows the top 10 breeds who have been identified in this comparison.
1988: APBT ranked 9th w/9 % of bites
1989: APBT ranked 5th w/15 %
1990: APBT ranked 5th w/16 %
1991: APBT ranked 9th w/10 %
1992: APBT ranked 2nd w/20.4 %(w/cocker spaniel showing in 1 st)
1993: APBT ranked 5th w/16 %
Some of the breeds which placed above the APBT were Dalmations, Chows, Labs, Goldens, Rotties, Dobbermans, and the afore-mentioed Cocker Spaniel.
In a 1993 study, also in Palm Beach County, the bites were ranked by severity from 1 to 4 and that was recorded as having inflicted the greatest number of severe bites was the domestic short-haired cat. A breed labelled as "pit bull" was in 5th place, following cat, GSD, Chow and Lab.
The division of general pediatrics, emergency medicine, at Children´s Hospital in philadelphia conducted a study in 1989 as a result of a ***perceived*** increase in pit bull injuries. 12 different breed/crossbreds were identified as perpetrators, the topefour of which were GSDs, pit bulls, rottweilers and Dobermans. 54 per cent of the animals were contained and 45 per cent were provoked prior to biting (by parental report).
in Great britain in 1991. Staffordshire bull terriers were reported as the commonest dogs producin bites, followed by the Jack Russel, medium-sized mongrels and the GSD. Pleas note that the Staffordshire bull terrier is NOT an American pit Bull terrier.
In 1991, in Australia, the journal of pediatric Child Heath reported that the GSD was implicated in dog bites presenting to the ER of a children's hospital and were implicated more frequently than their prevalence in the community.
Finally, in an article in Pediatrics, June 1994, an article entitled "Which Dogs Bite? A case control of risk factors." concluded the following:
Dog bites cause an estimated 585,000 injuries resulting in the need for medical attention yearly and children are the most frequent victims. The study sought to determine dog-specific factors independently associated wtith a dog biting a nonhousehold member. (88% occur in the dogowner`s yard or home or in the **adjoining** yard. 62% members of the victims' families witnessed the bite)
The identified risk group are children less than 11 years old, mean age is 8, males outnumber females. only 75 require hospital admission.
The method was to match 178 pairs of dogs selected from dogs reported to an urban animal control for a first-bite episod on a nonhousehold member in which the victim received medical treatment. Controls were nieghborhood-matched dogs with no history of biting a nonhousehold member, selected by modified random-digit dailing.
The reults were risk factors expressed as adjusted odds ratio, when the dog is.....
A german Shepherd 16.4
A Male 6.2
A chow-Chow 4.0
Living in a house with 1 or more children 3.5
Chained in the yard 2.8
Not neutered 2.6
This booklet contains statistics from several different sources. If you have something to add, or some questions about the material - feel free to contact SATHY. Email firstname.lastname@example.org.
In a review of 109 fatal dog attacks, among the many breeds involved, the breeds most frequently implicated were pit bulls, rottweilers, and German shepherds. The identification of these breeds has lead to the controversial practice of breed bans. (See generally, Lockwood R. Humane concerns about dangerous dog laws. University of Dayton Law Review 1988;13:267-77.) The Lockwood article suggests that, because the problem dog breeds change over the course of time, targeting a specific breed may be unproductive; a more effective approach may be to target chronically irresponsible dog owners.
California has no law banning any breed of dog. In some other states and countries, however, there have been "breed bans." Click here to link to a web site that keeps track of breed bans and breed-specific laws in the United States. Laws in Britain enacted in 1989 and 1991 make it illegal to import, breed, or sell pit bull terriers. Further, they must be registered, kept muzzled and on a lead when in public places, and, in order to ensure the type dies out, they must also be neutered.
In the United States, most such laws have been upheld. Lawyers can research this further by reading the article at 80 A.L.R.4th 70 (1991) [American Law Reports ALR4th, Volume 80 (1991) Current through the September, 1998, Supplement Annotation] VALIDITY AND CONSTRUCTION OF STATUTE, ORDINANCE, OR REGULATION APPLYING TO SPECIFIC DOG BREEDS, SUCH AS "PIT BULLS" OR "BULL TERRIERS" by Russell G. Donaldson, J.D.
In California, at least one city has laws regulating, but not banning, pit bulls. The City of Santa Monica does not permit pit bulls to be on public property unless they are muzzled:
One problem with such laws has been the definition of "pit bull":
"What exactly is a pit bull? Defining it has proved to be a formidable legal hurdle because the pit bull is not a specific breed. Rather, it is a kind of dog, a generic catchall like hound or retriever. The breeds most commonly referred to as pit bulls are the American Staffordshire terrier, which is the term used by the American Kennel Club, and the American pit bull terrier, the term used by the United Kennel Club. The men who match pit bulls in fights today do not bother with such formalities; they refer to their animals as bulldogs -- a nickname which should not confuse pit bulls with the pug-faced and bowlegged English bulldog, a distant relative, or the bullterrier, another relation whose bloodline was softened long ago by crossbreeding with the English Terrier. Pit bulls come in almost any color; their ears may be cropped or uncropped; their noses either red or black; and their height and weight merely proportionate -- with the weight parameters ranging from under 20 pounds to upwards of 100. Their muzzles are wedgelike, their jaws powerful and their heads blocky. A pit bull's coat will be short and glossy, shimmering over a compact frame tightly bound in muscle." (E.M.SWIFT, THE PIT BULL: FRIEND AND KILLER. IS THE PIT BULL A FINE ANIMAL, AS ITS ADMIRERS CLAIM, OR IS IT A VICIOUS DOG, UNFIT FOR SOCIETY?, Sports Illustrated, 07-27-1987, pp 72.)Another problem is determining which dogs are indeed dangerous.
"The primary difficulty in determining which breeds are most dangerous has to do with the floating numerator (ie, numerator floating without its denominator). It is important that we know not only the percentage of bites from a given breed but also the total number of that breed in the general canine